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Basics of Printing



  1. It is be defined as giving colour decorations to a fabric. The term printing signifies the productions of coloured patterns or design on the fabric. By printing the value of fabric is increased or look more babulous and fire and thus its market value is also increased. The 4 main possible styles of printing are:
    DIRECT STYLE OF PRINTING – In this style of printing the dye is printed directly on the fabric by means of necessary chemical and the pattern is produced.TYPES OF DIRECT STYLES PRINTING – Fabric that is to be printing must be bleached and clear the method produced colour designs are block printing, roller printing, Duplex printing, discharge printing, stencil printing, warp printing, photo printing, batik dyeing, tie-n-die, spray printing, etc.
    In most of these methods, the dye is in printed on the fabric in the paste form and any design pattern may be produced. In these methods of applying colours through penetration is not necessary.
    BLOCK PRINTING – The oldest method of printing designs on fabric is the hand method called block printing. This method is not commercially important it is too showing and printed fabric. Can’t be produced in large qualities by the hand block method. To make hand block prints the designs must first carved on a wooden or metal block. The dyestuff is applied is a form of paste to the design on the face of block. The block is pressed down by hand on selected portions of the surface of the fabric in printing the carved design as many times as desired on a specific length of cloths. To obtain variation of colours in the same design or many additional blocks must be carried, as there will be additional colour. The portions of the design that will appear in different colours must be separately in printed by hand before each design is complete. The more colour is used the more expensive and valuable the hand block print will be because of the enhanced beauty of the design as well as the labour involved in the hand block printing.

    CHARACTERISTICS OF BLOCK PRINTING –You can recognize hand block printing by nothing slight irregularities in the detail and in the repeat of the design.

    DISCHARGED PRINTING – The discharge method of printing cloth receives its name from the fact that colour is discharge from fabric that has been first piece dyed. Basic of direct dyes are used as they can be removed easily. The chemical that discharged the dye tends to weaken the fabric however in the area of design by the background dye is not fast and the construction may be weak in parts. The consumer should not buy the fabric printed by discharge method or printing if he wants durability. Discharge prints are found in cottons, rayon and in some pattern silk with dark background.

    STENCIL PRINTING – It is originated in Japan. Its high cost reduces its use and importance in USA. In this printing, the design must first be cut on cardboard, wood or metal. The stencil may have fine delicate designs or they may be large spaces through which a great amount of colour can be applied. A stencil design is usually limited to the application of only one colour and is gradually used for narrow width fabric.

    SPRAY PRINTING – Design may be hand painted on fabric or the dye may be applied with airbrush, which blows or sprays colour on the fabric. Spray printing is used when surface colouring i.e. to be done quickly and economically for e.g. design on table clothe. Direct dyes or vat dyes dissolved in water, alcohol or other organic solvante may be used.

    BATIK DYEING Batik is the hand method of printing designs on a fabric originally originated in JAVA. In this method the design is first drawn on the fabric and bus wax containing paraffix is used by a cup shaped inshinement to deposit wax on the fabric i.e. wherever the colour is not required. Therefore, the wax doesn’t allow the dye to penetrate. The fabric is when emerged in the dye bath the wax is then remove with heat. It is then dried. This method is similar to machine method of resist printing. The result is beautiful design against the dyed background for more colours. This colours is repeated however when the last colour is applied. The wax is allowed to crack with the result that the dye penetrates partially. The result is multi-colour affect, which in turn is a chief characteristic.

    TIE & DYE – This is a resisting process and it is based on folding method. In this method the textiles themselves are folded to resist the area from penetrating the colour. Different designs are obtained by folding the textiles in different forms like pleating, knotting etc. Different things can also be tied like grains, rice’s in different shapes. These things are tightened with the help of thread. After tying the cloth it is dropped in dye and then they are allowed to dry and then opened when required. It is one of the most famous print of India which is widely worked in Rajasthan Known by Bandhej, out, here.

    ROLLER PRINTING – It is a technical method of printing, pattern on the fabric. It produced large quantity of printed fabric in a very small limit and is relatively inexpensive. Thomas Bell invented it in 1783. It consists of engraved copper cylinder or rollers. There are different cylinders for different colours. The cylinder first come in contact with the dye part and then there is a blade called doctor’s blade which is attached to the machine scrapes the dye from the unwanted places and then printed on the fabric and the design is imprinted. Mordant is used to fix the dye paste on the fabric.

    DUPLEX PRINTING – It produces a woven type of pattern by printing the design on both side of the fabric. Two engraved copper cylinder for one colour is pressed on the fabric at a time. The design is applied so carefully than it may be mistaken for woven design.

    PHOTO PRINTING – In this style of printing the fabric is coated with a suitable chemical, which is sensitive to light, and then any photograph may be printed.


    FOR CELLULOSIC FIBRES – Vat dyes. It is always used for cellulose fibres.

    FOR SILK AND WOOL – Reactive dyed are used for protein fibres like silk and wool. e.g. sodium bicarbonate.

    FOR MANMADE FIBRES – Acid dyed are used

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